Nanisiniq: Arviat History Project posts
The Nanisiniq: Arviat History Project is a joint venture involving youth and Elders in the Inuit community of Arviat, located on the southwest side of Hudson Bay, Nunavut. This project brings together Inuit youth and Elders in an exploration of their history and culture from an Inuit point of view. Curtis Konek, Jordan Konek, and Amy Owingayak are all active members of this project and also will be part of the youth participating in COP 17. The Nanisiniq group will be presenting on climate change and social health in Durban, South Africa from Novembe 28-December 9, 2011 and in preparation, the group has been collecting information from the Inuit elders about climate change. For more information on the Arviat elders and their insights please visit the following:
IRIS would like to share some contributions from Curtis, Jordan and Amy on the Arviat History Project site. These posts connect the struggles of the Inuit to the greater obstacles we face in the modern world, particularly regarding climate change.
Remember to follow on Twitter @NanisiniqArviat !
Interview with Peter Irniq
by Curtis Konek
May 24 2011
On may 14, 2011 I interviewed Peter Irniq about Inuit living in the past and living the ”modern life” which is today, with new technology, and about the residential school. Peter said a lot of things about Inuit who used to live out on the land, and what they thought when their kids were taken away from their parents, when they had no choice to let them go. Peter Irniq was one of those kids who was sent to the residential school in Chesterfield Inlet. Inuit who were born on the land are stronger at living and surviving out on the land in the arctic because Inuit had more survival skills in the past, compared to now. Inuit had more hunting skills. Inuit used to travel frequently following the animals, such as caribou. In the past even a Inuk man knew how to sew his own clothing, such as caribou skins, seal skins, and fix his clothing if it had a cut anywhere in the clothing.
Parents taught their children how to survive out on the land, little boys practiced how to make an igloo at the age of 8 years old. So one day they will be living in an igloo on his own, and with his future wife and kids. And they teach their children the way he was taught by his father and pass it to their children. Inuit learn how to make an igloo at an early age. In the past if an Inuk (boy/man) did not know how to make an igloo he would not find a wife. Igloos keep you warm and give you a place to stay during the winter, so if you wanted a wife back in the late 1920’s to early1950’s or even later, you had know how to make a igloo In order to get a wife. For a little Inuk girl she needs to know how to sew and scrape any animal skins, and little Inuk girls make small ”kamiks” (caribou or seal skin boots) for practice. Scraping animal skins makes it easier to sew and it gets warmer as you wear it. It was important to know how to sew being a woman because one day she will have to leave her parents and sew her own clothing and tent for her future husband and children. Then they’ll pass on their knowledge to their children. When inuit used to live out on the land, the parents were like teachers, they taught their children how to survive and how to sew clothing. That is how Inuit survived in the arctic, by teaching their children and passing knowledge on to their children for many years.
When a man goes out hunting to look for food, he travels far from home so he can feed his family. He always brings his sewing kit, ”panaa” (snow knife), tea, tea pot, rifle, bullets, a small coleman stove, and caribou skins to sleep on. Historically, some of this was bought at the Hudson Bay Company. So he can survive out on the land by himself for many days. Inuit were always prepared for anything. Inuit knew when the storm would hit them, so they stopped and camped until it cleared again. Inuit who were born on the land knew a lot about survival skills and their surroundings/areas. Another thing Peter said was about being patient. Patience is one thing that Inuit had when they used to live out on the land. Being patient is the most important thing to remember when you are out on the land. When you are going to the flow edge, you have to have patience because you never know if you will be stuck on the ice and float on to the ocean. If you are stuck on the ice and float have patience because the ice always goes back to the flow edge. When your stuck in the ice have a small piece of snow, not too big, just enough to get some water in your mouth, so you won’t be thirsty.
When Peter was explaining about the caribou skin clothing he said that caribou skin clothing was the best clothing that you could ever wear out on the land in the arctic because caribou skin clothing warm, and last longer than the material that we use today, like goose clothing. Here is the example: ”if you drown on the lake or flow edge and you got out of the water and you are wet you take your caribou skin clothing off and start stepping on the caribou skin clothing to the snow, the snow will absorb the water and the caribou skin will be warm again, and you could wear it for the rest of the day…When you drown on the lake or flow edge, and you are using the goose clothing. Like those camouflage clothing that we order on the cataloge and downfield clothing, if you get wet they start to get frozen right away, and you have to change your clothing right away. If you don’t change your clothing you will freeze to death.”
Peter Irniq was born and grew up in Naujaat/Repulse Bay, Peter was going to grow up like his parents. Peter was 11 years old in 1958 when the kablunaat, (”white people”) came to their homeland in Naujaat/ Repulse Bay. The kablunaat, (white people) came to his homeland by boat. The kablunaat (white people) said to Peter’s parents, ”I’m here to pick up Peter Irniq, he’s going to ‘Chesterfield Inlet for school (residential school).” Peter went to school for the first time in Chesterfield Inlet. Peter knows a little bit of English that he learned from the Roman Catholic priest. These words he learn from the priest were ”seal, caribou, fish and box and what is your name.” When they got to Chesterfield Inlet they took their traditional clothing off and gave them kablunaat (white people) clothing. For most of them it was their first time wearing shoes, jeans, and short sleeved shirts. That is what they gave them to wear, and took their traditional clothing away. Those children who went to Chesterfield Inlet for residential school were punished by grey nuns and by teachers. Inuit who went to residential school with Peter Irniq were not allowed to speak their own ‘language (Inuktitut). If they spoke their own language their hands would be slapped with a yardstick. Peter and the other kids who went to school in Chesterfield Inlet were forced to speak English and were told to forget about their own language and were forced to learn European history and Saudi Arabian history, not Inuit history, their own traditional way of life. In residential school in Chesterfield Inlet they were learning ABCs, arithmetic, social studies, science, a few pictures of the world, and a map of the world. And if they did not learn they would be punished by their teachers. Peter and other kids who went to residential school also had to wash the walls and floors. Peter was also not used to the food that they served in residential school, such as frozen cow beef. They served arctic char, but Peter didn’t like it because they boiled the arctic char with their guts on and they had no choice to eat it. Inuit take the guts off arctic char and eat it raw or boiled. One food that Peter got used to was corned beef and corn flakes and he still eats this today. Inuit didn’t know about forestry in western Canada (British Columbia) and around the world until the kabulnaat (white people) came north to Inuit land.
Inuit are very adaptable people. Those Inuit who went to residential school adapted overnight. Inuit were punished a lot by the grey nuns. The grey nuns even told Peter that they don’t ever want to hear him speaking his own language in the class room because they are there to learn how to speak and write English and arithmetic. They told him to forget about his culture and his own language and Inuit spirituality. The grey nuns were so nice to the students before they were going back home to there homeland and they would tell the students that they had fun here in residential school to their parents. That is how they were mistreated in residential schools. I asked Peter a question about how he felt when he got back from the residential school in Chesterfield Inlet. He said it was so relaxing and exciting to go back to where he was raised as a child.
Inuit lifestyle changed when kablunaat (white people) opened the residential school in the north. That is when the Inuit way of life started to change. Inuit used to wear caribou skin clothing and seal skin clothing. Now Inuit use jackets, sweaters, t-shits, jeans, shoes and socks, pretty much everything we use today are now store-bought. Inuit have changed the way they lived in a matter of years. From living in a igloos and tents to houses that have electricity. Inuit now have the opportunity to do anything. Inuit can go to college or university in a different province. Pretty much anywhere in the world now. Even though Inuit don’t live on the land anymore, Inuit are still very adaptable to anything. Inuit still eat their traditional food, Inuit still go out hunting and most Inuit still speak their language. But Inuit are slowly loosing there culture and traditional way of life, we have to act faster and talk to our Elders who were born on the land. There are not many Elders who were born on the land anymore, they are the keys to our future and to keeping our culture and tradition alive.
Life during the Rankin Inlet Nickel Mine for Inuit
by Amy Owingayak
April 29 2011
To start with, I’d like to say that Inuit life style had completely changed for Inuit after the relocation. Inuit from Ennadai had just been relocated into a settlement and in the same year, the Mining in Rankin Inlet started. According to “The Rankin File: Inuit health and the Canadian liberal welfare state – Frank Tester” 79 Inuit from Eskimo Point worked at the Nickel Mine in Rankin Inlet. Therefore, I think it was a lot of hard work to be moving around so much and in this case, some probably had to leave their families to work. Although Inuit had always moved around living on the land, it was different to be moved to a certain place because Inuit chosed to live on the land where they wanted to for their own purposes. In other words, life was changing so quickly that most Inuit had to compromise their way of living to participate in a capitalist economy.
Secondly, it is shocking to see that the Mining set in Rankin Inlet seperated Inuit from the White People. On one hand, Inuit (from New Eskimo Settlement) had a camp of their own with no electricity, running water, or proper heating. They also lived about a mile away from the mine, can you imagine that? On the other hand, the White People lived closer to the mine in their own camps that had electricity, running water and had proper heating. Also, there is a difference between an Inuk’s wages from the White’s. Inuit made half of what the white people are making doing the same work. Another example is their movie nights were seperated ; white poeple having their movie nights on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays & Inuit having their move nights on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. As I said, it was much of a segregation between the Inuit and Qablunaaq (White People) between 1957-1962.
Lastly, it was pretty much two different world’s in the same community. The Old Eskimo settlement were the Inuit who did not work in the mine, living in shacks made from old scraps from the dump. The New Eskimo settlement were the Inuit who worked in the mine. Remember that they lived with no electricity, no proper heating and no running water. However, in the New Eskimo settlement Inuit lived in shacks built by the mine. Once they are not working anymore, they were not to live in the New Eskimo settlement, so they would have to move back into the Old Eskimo settlement which was on the other side of the hill close to the mine. In short, there is a difference between working Inuit and non working Inuit and ironically, still living the same (no heat, running water, electricity) except with a different life style.
June 29, 2011
by Jordan Konek
Apologize – Mamiatunarniq (Ma-mi-at-tu-nar-niq) – It’s a lot harder for the person who is hurting you physically or mentally to hurt you again when you ihumagiyungniiq (forgive).
Acceptance – Akauksarniq (Aka-uk-sar-niq) – Inuit accept new people to live in their communities and also accept their (guests) culture.
Perseverance – Sapiliqtailiniq (Sa-pi-liq-tai-li-niq) – In our culture, we are told to work until we are done with the job, so later in the future, we won’t have to get back to it.
Generosity – Tukurniq (Tu-kur-niq) – In our culture, we are told to share our caribou or any other animal when they are fresh.
Honesty – Suliniq (Su-li-niq) – My grandpa tells me that being honest is the best solution to problems. Because even if I lied, I’ll eventually be caught. He said it’s not the technology that catches lies, it’s the human nature that catches lies.
Teamwork – Piliriqatigiiniq (Pi-li-ri-qa-ti-gii-niq) – Team work has gotten Inuit to survive the Arctic in the past, we are constantly told to work together.
Listening – Tusaasurniq (Tu-saa-sur-niq) – My grandparents always tell me to listen to my neighbors, especially if they’re elderly. “Listening can save your life, can give you more information and can also take you far.”
Practice – Ukturayuniq (Uk-tu-ra-yu-niq) – “Practice makes perfect”. My grandparents tell us to practice hunting, so we’ll know what to do when needed.
Like any other culture in the world, Inuit have their own knowledge and have respect for their language, culture and traditions because that is what saved their lives. I myself try to follow Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit because I grew up helping my grandparents. I used to think that my grandparents didn’t want me to have fun when my friends are outside enjoying their times.
I am now a grown up and now understand what they were teaching me. It’s their way of life and that’s how they grew up, but most importantly, they want me to be successful, strong and prepared for the rest of my life. I can now work on my own, build things by myself and know better to buy things that my grandfather, James Konek has taught me. We now sit in his home and think about the times I cried as loud as I could to go out and play and just laugh together. Couple weeks ago my grandpa asked me to take him to his porch to get something. As we were going out, he asked me “do you remember when you cried to go home building this door?” Then we laughed and talked a little more about it.
I went home and thought, what if he didn’t teach me all those things?